Types of Exploitation

Sexual Exploitation | Forced Labour | Domestic Servitude | Forced Illegal Activities

Sexual Exploitation

Within Canada, Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSE) is the most documented form of human trafficking involving mainly women and girls, but also men and young boys.

Traffickers can range from opportunistic pimps posing as boyfriends to large organized crime operations. The process in which a trafficker recruits an individual into Human Trafficking is known as grooming.
CSE can range from street level prostitution to the production of pornography. These acts of CSE can take place in variety of locations such as nightclubs, massage parlors, strip clubs, escort services, residential brothels or over the internet.

Example: A trafficker may pose as a boyfriend and shower a young girl with expensive gifts, drugs and alcohol, until one day he tells her she must repay him for these “gifts” and will do so by having sex with clients that he will provide.

Human Trafficking vs. Prostitution

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Forced Labour

Forced Labour, is defined as “work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself/herself voluntarily.”

In Ontario, there have been very few cases where traffickers have been charged and prosecuted for labour trafficking. These cases are generally international, and usually involve temporary migrant workers who are recruited through false promises and fake contacts.

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Domestic Servitude

Domestic Servitude, is also known as an invisible form of exploitation due to the hidden nature of the work & is a subset of labour trafficking.

Victims of domestic servitude are:
— Often exploited in private households for the purpose of housekeeping, caring for children and/or the elderly;
— Exposed to working long hours with little to no pay;
— Have their documents withheld from them;
— Endure threats, emotional abuse and physical abuse;
— Subject to poor living conditions, no privacy & constant monitoring

Many domestic servitude cases that have been seen in Ontario, usually involve international victims entering Canada through live-in caregiver programs.

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Forced Illegal Activities

Forcing an individual to perform illegal activities is also considered a subset of labour trafficking.

The most notable difference is the control that traffickers have over their victims due to the seriousness of their illegal activities. Victims are less reluctant to come forward when they have knowingly conducted illegal activities, preventing them from trying to escape or contact authorities.

Some common types of illegal activities that victims perform include, but are not limited to:
— Petty theft & credit card fraud;
— Working in marijuana growing operations;
— Drug mulling and drug dealing

This form of labour trafficking is not common in Ontario, but being forced into performing illegal activities in the contact of labour or sex trafficking is common.

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